Monthly Archives: November 2013

You are browsing the site archives by month.

Turkey and the European Union

“The EU Accession process is less of a negotiation than an imposition,” we were told, meeting with Michael Miller, the Head of Political Affairs for the EU Delegation to Turkey in Ankara.

And indeed, the accession process is intrusive, as the European Commission issues thorough recommendations about what must be done for Turkey to bring itself in line with the European Union acquis. As a result, the EU Accession process has been a driving force behind reform in Turkey.

The headquarters of the EU Delegation to Turkey in Ankara.

The headquarters of the EU Delegation to Turkey in Ankara.

The EU Accession process has also been a long time coming. The EEC and Turkey first entered into an Association Agreement in 1964, aimed at eventually securing Turkey’s full membership in the EEC. However, the next several decades were rife with political violence and instability, with military coups in 1970 and 1981. In 1987, Turkey applied for full EEC membership; it was rejected as the European Commission stressed the existing gaps between Turkey and the EEC. Turkey and the EU instead formed a Customs Union in 1995. Finally, the European Council finally entered Turkey into its list of candidate countries at Helsinki in 1999, and accession negotiations opened in October 2005.

There are some obvious benefits of Turkey’s accession for both sides. The EU has an interest to stabilize Turkey politically, and the location of Turkey as a key energy transit route would make its EU membership extremely strategic. For Turkey, the EU is its biggest trading partner, accounting for 40% of its foreign trade. The EU is by far the biggest investor in Turkey, and it would make sense to solidify this economic partnership through greater integration.

However, the European Union has evolved significantly from its beginnings as an economic union in the EEC. In this sense, Turkey is chasing a moving goalpost or target when it comes to EU accession. The EU has increasingly been seen to embody a set of European values with regards to democracy and human rights.

While these reforms can be made, there remains hesitancy whether it is worth it. After initial progress in the early 2000s, the accession of Cyprus to the EU without resolving the border dispute spurred Turkish resentment, resulting in a hiatus in accession talks between 2004 to 2012. In contrast, many chapters are closed in the Turkish accession talks until a resolution in Cyprus. Comments by French President Sarkozy that “Turkey… has no place inside the European Union” suggest that even if Turkey could meet the acquis, it might still be unable to receive the unanimous vote to ultimately become a member.

There is also the question about whether Turkey actually needs the EU. The country managed to breeze through the world financial crisis of 2008-2009 relatively unscathed, in part due to the banking sector reforms instituted as part of its IMF loan package at the beginning of the decade. It has a large and growing domestic market, as over 50% of its population is under the age of 30. Also, there tends to be talk in Turkey about its options in the East, looking to Russia or countries in the Middle East as possible economic and political partners.

At the same time, Mr. Miller told us, “Turkey would do well to look at the costs of non-membership as well,” believing that Turkey does not have the political ability to institute reforms without external pressure. The lack of progress after 2004 has demonstrated this shortcoming, although Prime Minister Erdoğan’s Democratization Package may signal a renewed dedication.

“We need to get the EU accession process back to the leverage it had in 2002 to 2004,” Mr. Miller said.

Human Rights in Turkey

“Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,” begins the preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the document adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948 following the experience of WWII. And indeed, one of the triumphs of the 20th and 21st century has been a further expansion and recognition of this “inherent dignity” to all of humankind.

Yet there is still much to be done.

In Turkey, the 20th century was marked by repeated military coups, political violence, and an armed insurgency in the southeast by the PKK. The brutal crackdown of protests in Gezi Park last June provides one of the most recent examples of the constraints on the freedom of expression in Turkey.

In the early 2000s, the possibility of EU accession drove Turkey to institute a number of positive reforms in the arena of human rights: rewording some problematic articles in the Constitution and Penal Code, expanding the rights of minority groups like the Kurds, and limiting the application of the death penalty. But after this initial reform period, EU accession talks stalled after the admission of Cyprus into the EU in 2004. Consequently, the reforms also stopped. Only within the last couple months did the EU and Turkey resume negotiations, possibly again renewing the impetus for reform. Indeed, President Erdogan recently introduced a series of reform measures in his “Democratization Package” on Sept. 13.

Standing up for human rights

In Ankara, we met with representatives from İnsan Hakları Derneği, a human rights NGO (non-governmental organization, for those who aren’t familiar with all the acronyms in IR speak) in Turkey with its headquarters in Ankara.

IMG_6681

İHD is the oldest and biggest human rights association in Turkey. Established in 1986, today it has 30 branches across the country. While the association addresses a wide variety of issues within the realm of human rights, it tends to concentrate on issues of gender and freedom of expression, focusing on increasing awareness as well as providing free legal aid.

This can be a dangerous pursuit. In the early years of the association, two members were kidnapped and disappeared while they were working on cases of disappeared people. However, there has been much progress. While the organization does not face as much of a physical threat anymore, there still remains legal and administrative pressure on its activities.

We spoke with the International Affairs Secretary for İHD. He had recently been released from prison in April, after being held for 10 months for charges related to a speech he had made about international lobbying activities. He was ultimately released on the first hearing about his charges, but pretrial detention in Turkey can last up to five years. During the first seven months of imprisonment, neither he nor his lawyers had access to his indictment because it was under secrecy.

He was imprisoned under the pretenses of Turkey’s wide-scoping anti-terrorism law, which was introduced in 1991 to counter an insurgency by the PKK. However, due the wide-scoping language of the law, thousands of people––including many journalists––have been jailed. The definition of terrorism is so ambiguous that wide groups of individuals can be sent to prison. Very few of these individuals are accused of violent or criminal action, but instead are accused with promoting the aims of illegal organizations. To Turkey’s credit, the definition of what constitutes terrorist propaganda was narrowed last April, although the scope of the law remains an area of debate and criticism.

We discussed the possibility of EU accession as an incentive to improving human rights issues within Turkey, noting that the recent September 13th Democratization Package was passed just two weeks before the EU Progress Report. The president of İHD emphasized the need for the EU to establish an effective follow-up measure, highlighting an issue that we’ve examined time and time again in my classes this semester. While Turkey has many of the institutional frameworks in place, it lacks the administrative and social capabilities to ensure their implementation. Enforcement remains an issue. Nevertheless, the recent Democratization Package is promising, as it demonstrates an effort by the Justice and Development Party to address some of the issues within Turkey.

“In total, I am still an optimist,” our speaker told us about the reforms.

In the southeast of Turkey, the continuing crisis in Syria has had serious effects on those living near the border. Estimates vary, but there are currently around 800,000 Syrian refugees in Turkey, with around 200,000 in designated refugee camps. The refugees are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses.

“For us, the right to life is the most basic right,” said the president of İHD. “If there is no right to life, you can’t talk about democracy or rights in any country.”

The international community has a serious role to play in finding a sustainable solution to this crisis.

Out of the closet: Addressing LGBT issues in Turkey

In Ankara, we also met with a woman from Kaos GL, an NGO that focuses in LGBT rights and issues within Turkey. When we arrived, their meeting room was currently being used by another workshop, so we walked to go sit at a bar nearby that’s known as a safe space among university students in the area.

Kaos GL began meeting as a group in 1994, but was formally established as an organization in 2005 when they began publishing a magazine. Today, they engage in various forms of outreach and education within the community to deal with continuing issues of discrimination.

In almost every major city in Turkey, you’ll find a set of rainbow stairs. (There’s even a set of rainbow stairs near the harbor in Alanya.) Originally one man started doing it in Istanbul, when he kept painting the stairs rainbow after the city municipality kept painting them back to normal. Soon, LGBT communities started painting rainbow stairs in each of their own cities.

An example of rainbow stairs inside a high rise in Ankara

For more information on human rights in Turkey, check out the following resources:

  • The Human Rights Watch’s 2013 Report on Turkey gives an overview of the current status quo and recent developments regarding human rights in Turkey
  • The U.S. State Department’s 2012 Human Rights Report on Turkey provides an extensive summary of the major obstacles to the guarantee of human rights in Turkey
  • Amnesty International keeps an active blog on Human Rights in Turkey with regular updates

On the Steps of Anıtkabir

As we drove around Ankara, I couldn’t help but get a little homesick for my own capital city. Over these past couple years, I’ve grown to consider Washington, D.C., almost as much of my home as California. After three months in Alanya, I can’t help but crave the way the sun reflects off of the monuments or the way lobbyists and politicians bustle about with their aura of self-importance. And so, it was nice to spend a couple days in Ankara, amidst the capital buzz of embassies, NGOs, and politics.

Ankara has been the capital of Turkey since 1923, corresponding with the founding of the Turkish Republic. With that importance, Ankara has grown to become the second largest city in Turkey, after Istanbul. It’s quite a remarkable growth. Today, its population sits at around 4.3 million, but just in the 1960s, it hovered more around 1 million.

After a night at our hotel in Ankara, we began our day by visiting Anıtkabir, the mausoleum and museum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Our visit coincided shortly after the memorial of his death on November 10, so the memorial was packed with groups of schoolchildren paying their respects.

The mausoleum and museum were beautiful, situated on a tall hill above Ankara. But my favorite part was spotting these kids:

Credit to Lindsay, who snagged a picture of these schoolchildren wearing Atatürk masks

Credit to Lindsay, who snagged a picture of these schoolchildren wearing Atatürk masks

For the rest of Ankara, our trip took a decidedly academic turn, as our itinerary was full of meetings with different kinds of organizations that operate out of Ankara. I found the conversations to be some of the most interesting aspects of my time in Turkey so far. There’s only so much that I can learn from the news or from the readings for my classes, but the best kind of insight comes from those on the ground who are working through the issues.

For the rest of the posts from Ankara, I’ll take a more topical approach, discussing some of the issues that we  studied in class as well as discussed in meetings with various leaders during our time in the capital. Stay tuned!
IMG_6688

Walk Like a Hittite

On our long drive to Anakara today, we detoured to Hattusa, the long ago capital of the Hittite Empire during the Bronze Age.

The Hittites Empire dates back to the 18th century BCE, when the kingdom at Hattusa was first established. At its height in 1285 BCE, the empire comprised a large part of Anatolia, northwestern Syria, and upper Mesopotamia. When one considers the fact that the peers of the Hittites were the other great empires of the Egyptians or Assyrians, it’s surprising that one doesn’t hear as much about this powerful empire.

Map of the Hittite Empire at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I(c. 1350–1322 BCE) and Mursili II (c. 1321–1295 BCE).

The Hittite kingdom was commonly called the Land of Hati by the Hittites themselves. The term “Hittite” actually comes from the King James translation of the Bible, as in the “Children of Heth.” In the 19th century, archaeologists originally attributed their findings to these biblical Hitties. Today, there remains some dispute over whether the biblical Hittites were those headquartered in Hattusa or one of the neo-Hittite empires that came later.

In Hattusa, we first visited an open air sanctuary from the Hittites, which was most likely used for some kind of worship. The stone carvings were quite well-preserved.

We then explored the various gates of this former capital.

IMG_6561

The Lion Gate of Hattusa, which was one of two city gates.

The Earth Gate, or Sphinx Gate, was particularly striking. Underneath the former city wall is a 70-m long tunnel, built from flat stones that lean towards each other to form a triangle. You can still walk through it today. The purpose of the tunnel is unknown––since its entrance was clearly visible from the outside and flanked by two sets of stairs, it seems dubious that the tunnel could have had any serious defensive role. Most likely, it served for some kind of religious or ceremonial purpose. (Imagine, building a 70-m stone tunnel just for a ceremony!)

IMG_6587

We had a long drive ahead of us to Ankara, but we broke it up along the way with a visit to the Ballıca Cave. It was huge inside!

I’ll write soon with an update about our time in Ankara (NGOs galore!), but in the meantime, you can check out my latest post for the Berkley Center’s Junior Year Abroad Network:

In Turkey, nationalism is part of the daily political discourse. While the state plays an active role in the cultivation of this nationalism, the feeling runs deeper. The omnipresent Atatürk paraphernalia goes beyond state sponsorship—you can buy Atatürk earrings, Atatürk phone cases, and Atatürk notebooks.

Raw Materials and Raw Meat

Probably one of the coolest aspects of my program is that we have the opportunity to do all kinds of unique things in Turkey, whether it’s meeting with guest speakers, performing with a folkloric dance group, or navigating situations that would otherwise be difficult with my shaky command of Turkish.

And sometimes, it means getting to tour the largest mattress factory in Turkey.

I’m taking two economics courses this semester on Turkey, where we’ve been discussing the development of Turkey from an economy based on import substitution industrialization to an export-driven market, so it was interesting to see what’s behind Turkey’s remarkable growth. For our day in Kayseri, we spent the day touring two factories: the Yataş mattress and furniture factory and the Mercan sausage factory.

The Yataş Group is one of the largest retail companies in Turkey, with an umbrella of mattress, bedding, and furniture brands. The company was originally founded by a businessman who returned to Turkey after receiving his MBA in the United States and realized there weren’t any mattress factories in Anatolia; they were all being made in Thrace. Seeing this opportunity, he opened his own factory which today produces over 1,000 mattresses each day, plus a large furniture production, in a facility that includes over 80,000 square meters of enclosed space. (A far cry from the home textile looms we visited earlier in the semester!)

Today, Yataş is the largest brand of mattresses in Turkey, catering to the country’s large and growing population. Recently, the company has begun to expand into Russia and the Middle East, an interesting turn considering the debate in Turkey over whether to focus East or West. In fact, Yataş had opened 14 retail stores in Iran before the Iranian government instituted import restrictions. Now, the company is investigating whether they could open up a production facility in Iran, due to the low labor cost and large domestic market. However, business in Iran remains extremely difficult due to international restrictions, especially on money transfers. (On another note, it will be interesting to see what direction Iran takes following the recent election of a new president.)

In between factory visits, we had some free time to walk around Kayseri.

Kayseri is well-known for its pastırma, a type of cured, spicy dry meat, so it only made sense that we would complete our time in Kayseri with a visit to a sausage and meat factory. The origin of pastırma reportedly comes from when Turkish warriors would put meat under their saddle, where it could last for months while they went on military campaigns.

First, we had to suit up and be properly sanitized to enter the production facility.

Then, we were given a tour of the process.

#sausagefactoryselfies

#sausagefactoryselfies

IMG_6528

I didn’t know quite what to expect from a visit to a meat factory, but I thought that for sure I’d end the tour as a vegetarian. Yet unexpectedly, it wasn’t that bad as you would think. Sure, there was raw meat, but it by far wasn’t as gory or disgusting as I thought it might be. (And by the end, I was hungry and ready to taste some!)

IMG_6533

Afiyet olsun!

Something Out of This World

After an early morning seeing Cappadocia from the sky, we joined the rest of the group for a morning full of vista views.

IMG_6128

From legend, the name Cappadocia, or Kapadokya in Turkish, which means “Land of the Beautiful Horses” in Old Persian. The area has a long and storied history due to its central location in Anatolia, at various times under the control of the Hittite, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Empires.

IMG_6153

You can see the door to a house carved into the rock!

IMG_6155

Centuries ago, the people in the area used this "castle" to retreat from invading troops.

Centuries ago, the people in the area used this “castle” to retreat from invading troops.

Group photo in front of the evil eye tree.

Group photo in front of the evil eye tree.

This was one of my favorite stops. We found a path down to one of these rock houses and explored the inside.

IMG_6240

Next we visited the Derinkuyu Underground City, a series of connecting caves that stretch down eight levels to a depth of approximately 60 meters below the surface. The city could accommodate up to 20,000 people in case of an attack, when the entrances could be blocked by large stone boulders. It’s an impressive engineering feat: a series of ventilation shafts, wells, and narrow passageways keep the city comfortable and protected. The rooms of the city stretch on and on––there’s even the cross-shaped room of a church! Historians are not quite sure who built the tunnels, which were most likely expanded over the years; however, some estimates date the city back to the 7th or 8th century.

This was one of the occasions where I’m glad to be just under 5′ 5″––for many of the tunnels, I had to completely crouch over to make my way through the dark. I have no idea how you would fit if you were much taller!

IMG_6287

Outside of the cave, I found this strange animal sculpture and made Alex take a picture of me. “Oh, that’s definitely going on the blog,” he mocked me. (So here it is!)

We had lunch at a restaurant called Aç Kedi (or “Hungry Cat,” in English). So naturally, it provided another cat-tastic photo-op:

One of my favorite sights of Cappadocia was the Göreme Open Air Museum, the impressive remains of one of the earliest Christian communities. By the end of the 2nd century, a large Christian community had formed in Cappadocia, which lasted until the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne instigated a massive population exchange of Christians and Muslims between Greece and Turkey. In the 3rd century, St. Basil founded a lively community of monks in the area and introduced forms of worship to the early Christians. The Göreme Open Air Museum was the site of much of this religious education, where you can today visit a number of these early Christian churches, many with fantastic murals decorating the walls. The churches and accompanying rooms were directly carved from the soft volcanic rock, making the site visually as well as historically rich.

IMG_6315

Lastly, we had some time to hike around one of the valleys in this beautiful region, exploring the physical beauty for ourselves.

IMG_6363

IMG_6369

What a place.

Above Cappadocia

Slowly, the rising sun illuminated the dark outlines of the valley below. Huge rock spires shot out dramatically from the ground, seeming to support the sky above the earth. Stone cliffs dotted with countless windows bordered the patchwork of farmland. Our hot air balloon gently ascended into the sky, joining the many others that dotted the horizon.

Words can’t describe how magical it was to watch the sun rise over Cappadocia this morning from a hot air balloon. While it wasn’t a part of our regular program, a bunch of us splurged on tickets for the ride, leaving our hotel at 5 am to meet our bus.

Before the ride, they fed us some breakfast and coffee as they began to inflate the balloons. When it was still dark, we boarded the balloon, with a total of 28 people fitting into the basket. (They’re bigger than you think!)

Firing up the hot air!

Firing up the hot air!

IMG_2594

View from the ground. (Right when we arrived at the hot air balloon site, my camera died and I forgot my extra battery back at the hotel. Luckily, I had my iPhone camera with me!)

It's always time for some hot balloon selfies.

It’s always time for some hot balloon selfies.

Our balloon then ascended, joining the other 40-60 balloons that filled the sky that morning. Over the next hour, we ascended and descended, going with the wind as we drifted over Cappadocia.

IMG_2601

The gas cylinders that create the hot air to lift the balloon into the sky. The pilots used these to control the height of the balloon, but its direction depends entirely on the wind.

Some hot air balloons ready to take flight.

Some hot air balloons ready to take flight.

IMG_2617 IMG_2630 IMG_2621IMG_2635

A landscape that looks like something out of this world.

A landscape that looks like something out of this world.

Look at those rocks!

Look at those rocks!

Me and Amanda on board the balloon, about 40 m up in the sky at this point.

Me and Amanda on board the balloon, about 40 m up in the sky at this point.

Slowly, the sun continues to rise.

Slowly, the sun continues to rise.

IMG_2711 IMG_2720

IMG_2723

Afterwards, they handed out certificates as part of our post-flight celebration.

IMG_2736

IMG_2726

1470250_10151748733968231_1024015033_n

PC: Lindsay

1425780_10151748737168231_1079145071_n

PC: Lindsay

We got back to the hotel by 8 a.m., then headed off on another full day. (Because there’s no time to rest when you’re on vacation!) I’ll write more on that later, but for now, I’ll leave you with a look at this:

PC: Alex

PC: Alex

On the Silk Road

We hit the road again this morning to travel to Cappadocia, the picturesque region of Central Anatolia. As we settled into the ride, I once again found myself curled up with Anna Karenina, amusing myself with the randomness of my iPod’s shuffle.

IMG_6053

So flat!

Our journey followed the very same path that thousands of merchants once traveled along the Silk Road. Along the way, we stopped at the Sultanhan Karavansaray, which is the largest and grandest caravanserai of the Seljuks. Alaattin Keykubat built the caravanserai originally in 1229, where it once served as a lodging and trading post for merchants who traveled from all across the world to seek profit on the Silk Road. The caravanserai itself consists of two sections: a large open courtyard for summer and a huge indoor cavern for winter.

We then visited Hacıbektaş, a small town in the Nevşehir Province in Cappadocia. Notably, the town has a large Alevi population, members of a religious group that combines Anatolian folk Shi’ism with Sufi elements. In Turkey, they have faced a history of long oppression under the Sunni majority.

The town gets its name from Haci Bektasi Veli, a prominent Turkish-Muslim Sufi thinker who lived from 1248-1337. Similar in many ways to Rumi, his system of thought is based on tolerance, peace, love, and equality. His tomb is located near the center of town in his former monastery, which now serves as a museum and a site of pilgrimage for Alevi and Bektashi from throughout Turkey.

We also got to see a traditional dance of the Alevis.

The chair and table where Ataturk sat for tea when he came to visit the town, now on display in the town's cultural center

The chair and table where Ataturk sat for tea when he came to visit the town, now on display in the town’s cultural center.

The theater of the performance

The theater of the performance

As the sun was setting, we stopped in the pottery town of Avanos. The town sits near the banks of the Kızılırmak, the longest river in Turkey, whose red clay has been the raw material of pottery for centuries. We visited a local pottery shop, whose workshops had been steadily producing pottery pieces by the same family since 1843.

IMG_6103

Looks almost straight out of the American Southwest.

By the time we drove into Ürgüp, it was dark. Only the bus’s headlights gave glimpses of the eerie rock monuments that define the landscape of Cappadocia. The rest would have to wait until the next day… by hot air balloon.

City of the Whirling Dervishes

After several weeks in Alanya, it was once again time to head out again for our study tour, a weeklong trip as a group where we’ll be traveling through central Anatolia to Ankara. Since the last week was packed with midterms and papers, the study tour couldn’t have come at a better time. By the end of the week, I couldn’t wait to hit the road again.

We left Alanya early on Saturday morning, driving inland to our first destination: Konya.

Konya is a city of around 1 million people, located about a five hours drive inland from Antalya. Konya was historically the capital of the Seljuks, who ruled Anatolia before the Ottomans. Most famously, it is the home of the tomb of Jalaleddin Rumi, the famous 13th-century Sufi poet and mystic.

Rumi was born in 1207 in present-day Afghanistan. As a child, his family moved extensively throughout the Middle East before finally settling in Konya at the invitation of the Sultan of the Seljuks. In Konya, he attracted a great following as an accomplished professor in religious sciences at the largest theological school in the city. After his death, his followers formed the Mevlevi Sufi order to follow his teachings.

Today, Rumi’s poetry has been translated into countless languages, preaching its message of compassion and love. One of his most famous poems is his Seven Advice:

In generosity and helping others
be like the river.

In compassion and grace
be like the sun.

In concealing others’ faults
be like the night.

In anger and fury
be like the dead.

In modesty and humilty
be like the soil.

In tolerance
be like the ocean.

Either you appear as you are or
be as you appear.

With these words in our minds, we first visited Rumi’s tomb and museum. (The Turks know him as Mevlana.) The courtyard was unbelievably crowded with all kinds of tourists and pilgrims squeezing into the rooms.

Our next stop was the Karatay Museum, an old 13th-century madrasa that today houses a collection of tiles from the Seljuk period.

Afterwards, it was time for a çay and kahve break on the citadel! The citadel is this giant artificial hill in Konya, reportedly built from a tax that required everyone in the city to bring a bag of dirt to the center of the city. Today, the largest roundabout in the world encircles the hill.

We peeked inside the Alaeddin Mosque, which sits at the top of the hill. The mosque is built in the Seljuk-style, with a large square building built out of red stone.

Then we were in for a special treat. We visited a Dervish House, where one of the dervishes walked us through their ceremony and explained the basic tenets of Mevlana’s philosophy. We got to make our own attempts at becoming Whirling Dervishes ourselves!

Luckily, I got tons of video footage of them spinning around and bumping around as they attempted their own version of the meditative dance.

And after dinner, we got to see it done by professionals at the free show on Saturdays at the Konya Cultural Center.

It was so mesmerizing! I have no idea how they don’t get dizzy.

We then settled into our hotel for the night, exhausted from the day of travel.

“What you seek is seeking you.” – Rumi

Snapshots from Sapadere Canyon

Last weekend, we spent a Saturday morning exploring Sapadere Canyon, a natural park about an hour outside of Alanya. We explored some caves, climbed the trail, and went for a swim. The water was beautiful, but freezing––the kind of temperature that completely takes your breath away and stops your heartbeat.

IMG_5831

IMG_5825

IMG_5815

IMG_5833IMG_5840

1450066_10151721648403231_296432118_n

1394392_10151721648563231_1247757696_n

1452534_10151721647293231_1151023226_n